Archive for the ‘Brewing’ category

Wild about wild yeast

December 23, 2017

I retired from Niagara College exactly one year ago today, and other than two short posts last winter, there has been radio silence on this channel ever since. There were some compelling reasons: The first three months of 2017 were spent fixing up our house so we could sell it. The next three months were spent selling the house, packing up our stuff and moving out to Vancouver Island on the West Coast of Canada. Since then, we have been unpacking and getting used to our new surroundings.

Well, the vacation’s over, it’s time to do some writing!

First up, I’d like to address the subject of “wild yeast”, specifically the yeast known as Brettanomyces (pronounced bret-TAN-oh-MY-sees, and often shortened to “Brett”, much to the eternal chagrin of brewers actually named Brett).

I was at a beer tasting at a local liquor store where we were served a beer fermented with Brett. The store employee leading the tasting assured us that Brettanomyces was a wild yeast existing in the air that brewers used to spontaneously ferment their beer in order to make it sour. There were so many errors in that single statement that I decided I needed to spend some time clearing up a few misconceptions about Brett.

Firs, let’s talk about ordinary domestic brewers’ yeast. The role of yeast in fermentation was actually a big mystery until relatively recently. As late as the 1830s, respected scientists insisted that yeast was an inorganic substance that was somehow spontaneously created during fermentation — in other words, fermentation created yeast. It wasn’t until the 1860s that Louis Pasteur studied the issue and irrefutably established that yeast was a single-celled critter that ate sugar and produced CO2 and alcohol as a result.

Eight years later, Emile Christian Hansen, the head of Carlsberg’s laboratories, successfully isolated the two main types of domestic brewers yeast.

The first one, which could ferment at room temperatures, he named Saccharomyces cerevisiae (“sugar-eating fungus of beer”). This is the “top-fermenting” ale yeast that has been making beer for humanity for thousands of years.

He was also able to isolate a different strain of yeast from his own Carlsberg lager, a “bottom-fermenting” strain that could ferment at much lower temperatures. This yeast strain, which produced lagers, had actually been donated to Carlsberg by Spaten Brewery of Munich forty years previously, and had already been named Saccharomyces pastorianus (“sugar-eating fungus of Pasteur”) in 1870 by German scientist Max Reess. However, Hansen declared the Carlsberg yeast to be a new strain, which he emphasized by calling it Saccharomyces Carlbergensis. Hansen’s name persisted for almost a century until genetic testing proved that S. pastorianus and S. Carlbergensis were in fact the same yeast. Since Reess had named the yeast first, “pastorianus” had precedence and is used today.

Both S. cerevisiae and S. pastorianus are very domesticated. After centuries of eating only very simple sugars, that’s pretty much all they can digest: single molecules of glucose, or maltose (a pairing of two glucose molecules) or maltotriose (a short strong of three molecules of glucose). Once all these simple sugars have been digested, only more complex sugars are left — these “non-fermentable” sugars give the beer body and some sweetness.

Hansen declared these domesticated yeasts to be the only “true” brewers’ yeasts. Every other type of yeast found in beer was an undesirable accident that Hansen called “wild yeast”.

In 1904, another Carlsberg scientist, Hjelte Claussen, isolated a strain of “wild yeast” that was spoiling British beers, and named it Brettanomyces (“British fungus”). Claussen noted several characteristics about this strain: it produced acetic acid (vinegar) and other “off flavours”; and it was able to digest very complex molecules. As a matter of fact, it was able to live inside the cells of wood, digesting the complex sugar molecules found there. This meant that once Brett had infested a wooden vessel at the cellular level, there was no practical way to disinfect the wood — the vessel had to be thrown out, lest the infection spread throughout the brewery. For this reason, 20th-century brewers regarded Brettanomyces the same way that doctors regarded measles: a communicable disease that was difficult to eradicate.

In fact, Brett has likely been in our beer just as long as the traditional brewers’ yeasts. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, when British brewers aged their porter in giant vats for up to a year, it was undoubtedly Brett that helped to give aged porter a complex, viniferous character (likely similar to Rodenbach’s red Flanders ale).

In the 21st century, with the rise of the craft beer revolution and the search for new flavours, the thinking about Brettanomyces began to change. It is true that Brett produces some acetic acid, but not terribly efficiently. If a craft brewer wants to produce a sour-tasting beer, he or she would be better off using either lactobacillus, the lactic-acid producing bacterium responsible for spoiled milk, or pediococcus, a bacterium that produces acetic acid in far greater quantities than Brett. Brewers using Brett are mainly interested in the other flavours produced: phenolic, funky, musty, spicy, barnyard, horse blanket and cloves are just a few of the flavour compounds that Brett can produce. As Nate Ferguson, co-founder of Escarpment Labs, told me, “I wouldn’t use Brett primarily for souring a beer. But if I was souring a beer with pediococcus or lactobacillus, I would use Brett afterwards. In addition to acid, those bacteria produce diacetyl [gives beer a buttered popcorn taste], which Brett can clean up. But my primary reason for using Brett would be for the flavours it produces.”

Brett‘s insatiable appetite for complex molecules can also have another effect on beer. Since Brett will convert ALL the sugar molecules in the wort into alcohol and CO2 — even those “non-fermentable” sugars left behind by traditional brewers’ yeast — Brett will produce a stronger, drier beer with a thinner mouthfeel. As Nate Ferguson pointed out, “Brett dries out the beer, which helps to emphasize sourness.”

This search for new beer flavours has led to something of a “yeast revolution”. Far from being considered “wild”, hundreds of strains of Brett with various flavour profiles have been isolated by yeast labs, and can be ordered by a brewer and pitched into beer in exactly the same way as S. cerevisiae and S. pastorianus.

Brett can be used in one of two ways:

  • Use a traditional yeast for a primary fermentation. Once fermentation has ended, Brett is then added as a seconday fermentation, and goes to work on the residual sugars.
  • More rarely, Brett is used as the primary yeast — this is called an “all-Brett beer”.

For brewers that use Brett, opinion varies as to which method produces a more “Brett-y” beer.

One thing is clear, though: even in the age of stainless steel vessels, if the brewer does not practice the strictest protocols in isolating vessels, valves pipes and hoses used in making a Brett beer and then sanitizing and testing for residual yeast, Brett still has the ability to survive and cross-contaminate. This recently happened at one BC brewery — Brett had been used in a seasonal one-off, a hose was not sanitized properly, and a batch of one of their regular beers was subsequently contaminated with Brett.

So, in conclusion:

  • Brettanomyces isn’t a wild yeast that spontaneously ferments beer by falling into it from the air — it is pitched into a beer exactly the same way as traditional yeasts. It was given the label “wild” by an uptight Danish scientist.
  • Although Brett can have a slight souring effect on beer due to the acetic acid it produces, brewers are much more excited by the other flavours that it produces, and its ability to dry out a beer by reducing residual sweetness.
  • However, unless a brewer wants all his or her beers to taste like Brett, extreme care has to be used in cleaning and sanitation.
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Ben Johnson asks the question we all should have: Why does sexist marketing still exist?

February 2, 2017

Ben Johnson is a beer writer who twice (2014 and 2015) was voted “Best Beer Writer in Ontario” at the Golden Tap Awards. His blog, the aptly named Ben’s Beer Blog, should be required reading for anyone who makes or drinks Ontario craft beer.

Ben has posted a significant piece about the ever-present sexism in our craft beer industry, Let’s Talk About Sexist Beer Marketing in which he beards the lion in its den by contacting offending brewers and asking them why they have taken the low road.

Read his blog. Contact the breweries mentioned and tell them they are creatively sterile and lazy. Drink someone else’s beer.

Iron Brewer: The planning begins

July 23, 2015

Yes, it’s that time again. The Master Brewers’ Association of Canada (MBAC) has just released the list of ingredients for the 2015 edition of the Iron Brewer competition.

For those of you who have joined this channel since last summer, the MBAC provides 15 brewers with identical bags of ingredients. Each competitor must make at least 10L of beer using only the ingredients provided plus brewing water. (Just like Iron Chef competitors don’t have to use every ingredient on the pantry table, Iron Brewers don’t have to use every ingredient in the bag.) The beers are judged, the scores are toted up, and one brewer is crowned the Iron Brewer.

Since there are always more than 15 brewers interested, names are drawn from a hat, with the exception of last year’s 1st, 2nd and 3rd place finishers, who are given a bye into the next competition.

Here are the ingredients in the bag this year:

Base Malts:
Czech Pils, OIO 2-row, Weyermann Vienna, Simpsons Pale Ale Golden Promise

Specialty malts:
Briess Smoked Cherry Wood Malt, Bairds Carastan 30/37, Chocolate, Simpsons Light Crystal, Simpsons Double Roasted Crystal, OIO Toasted barley, Weyermann Carabelge, Crisp Clear Choice, Harvest Malt & Hops

Hops:
Admiral (13.6% AA), Celeia (4.3), Pilgram (9.0), Jarrylo (14.8), Pekko (15.4) + whole leaf from Harvest Malt & Hops & possibly Winterbrook Farms

Yeast:
Belle Saison, Munich Classic wheat, Abbaye belgian, S23 Lager, US05 Ale, Fermentis Abbaye

Special Ingredients:
Oak Chips, Sarsaparilla, Whirlfloc

There may be some additional ingredients added by the end of next week. I have until the end of September to brew at least 10L of beer with only the above ingredients + brewing water.

Does anyone have suggestions on what type of beer I should make?

Iron Brewer Throw-down

December 2, 2014

Yes, it’s been over two months since I last blogged. Here’s what happened: a BIG project. Back in the summer, I was given responsibility for creating an on-line version of our History of Brewing course. So that’s what I’ve been doing ever since. It started off as a normal project. But, like Audrey II in Little Shop of Horrors, the project began to grow and take on a life of its own. By the end of the summer, I was working on it seven days a week. By October I was working on it seven days a week, often from 8 am until 1 or 2 in the morning. It’s done and dusted now, doubtless a real achievement in the annals of on-line education. I’ll blog about the whole thing later, once the nightmares and flashbacks have calmed down.

However, now that I have a life again, let’s return to the matter at hand — the Iron Brewer competition some eight weeks ago.

In case you need a reminder, the Iron Brewer is an annual competition held by the Master Brewers Association of Canada (MBAC), where all the entrants get an identical bag of ingredients, and have to make at least 10 litres of beer using only what’s in the bag plus brewing water. I had chosen to make a strong Scotch ale.

View from my table. Nice place.

View from my table. Nice place.

This year, competition judging happened at Amsterdam Brewhouse,  a brewpub down on Queen’s Quay at the Toronto waterfront. It’s a very nice location, right beside a marina, if you can get there — for the past two or three years, Queen’s Quay has been a construction zone, raising the challenge of Toronto traffic from impossible to nigh impassable. But finally I and my cooler of Scotch ale arrived.

My wife’s coworkers had suggested possible names for my beer, and I was particularly taken with “Highland Gale Highland Ale”. (I came soooo close to using “Big Jimmy”.) I didn’t print labels this year, but I did have a graphic on the table of a highland warrior laying about with a claymore.

Last year, my table was pretty Spartan compared to some of the other displays of grain and hops brought forth by competitors. I had every intention of creating a better display this year, but… well… anyways.

table

My table, as Spartan as last year

So my table was a bit barren again.

This year, Elaine wasn’t able to make it, so I didn’t have anyone bringing me beer samples from the other competitors. I did manage to slip away a couple of times, and man, the other beers I was able to taste were fantastic this year! Andy Preston, who came in second last year, was at the table next to me, and had concocted a delicious brown ale. (That’s actually a pun, because he had used a double decoction method to make the beer. “Concocted”. “Double decoction”. Get it?)

<crickets>

Never mind then.

The special ingredient in the bag this year was heather tips, and many took advantage of this. Victor North, who with his wife Sonja has started up Garden Brewers in Hamilton, had made something incredible with the heather tips, although the exact style escapes me right now. (It WAS eight weeks and a lot of beers ago.) Siobhan McPherson also used the heather tips — again, I can’t remember what the style was, but it was good. A fellow Brewmaster graduate, Chris Freeman, now brewmaster at Collingwood Brewery, brought a delicate heather-spiced English mild. Current third-semester Brewmaster student Caleb Gilgan eschewed the heather tips in favour of the oak-smoked wheat malt, brewing up a crisp and lip-smacking smoked Oktoberfestbier.

crowds

This was early on. It got way more crowded.

While the judging was going on, I tried to describe my beer to each drinker: a nose of wild honey, a full rounded palate, with soft notes of caramel leading to a lushly sweet finish. Or words to that effect. However, it got quite crowded, and noisy, making erudite and witty commentary impossible By the end of the afternoon, I was pretty much reduced to pushing beer into people’s hands and screaming, “Yaaaaaaaaaaaaaar!”

trophy

Organizer Paul Dickey hands me the trophy. No, I don’t know what the object on top of the trophy is.

After a couple of hours of judging, it was time for the winners to be announced. Third place went to Ian Johnston — unfortunately I didn’t get a chance to sample his beer. Second place went to Victor North for a beer I hope Garden Brewers produces commercially. And for first place: me.

“Gobsmacked” is not a word I commonly use, but for the first time, it was perfect: I felt gobsmacked. There was some fantastic beer there, far more complex than my simple Scotch ale, but apparently Highland Gale Highland Ale had achieved some sort of zeitgeist. Huh.

Of course, I am never at a loss for words, so when I was handed the mic, I held forth: “Errr.. Ummm… Uhhh… Thanks.”

Since that time, my fame has known no bounds. People stop me on the street.

Okay, I’m lying about that part.

However, Jon Downing, the brewmaster at the Teaching Brewery, borrowed my recipe, and last week, I helped mash in what will become about 400 litres of the Highland Gale Highland Ale. It should be available later in December — perhaps in time for Christmas!

 

Chocolate Decadence

March 23, 2014

A few weeks ago the college had a “Chocolate Decadence” festival. This event is mostly a chance for the culinary department to show off — chocolate, after all, is the theme. However, the organizers also wanted to offer a 1-hour seminar that would focus on chocolate-based foods and the college-brewed beers that could be paired with them, and a similar seminar pairing chocolate with college-made wines. I was asked to lead the seminar on beer and chocolate, and my counterpart in the wine education program, Britnie Bazylewski, was asked to handle the wine seminar.

Shortly after receiving our Decadence seminar assignments, Britnie and I had a brilliant idea while we were munching on Skittles. (Britnie keeps a supply of Skittles on her desk, which I have to eat if I feel like Skittles, because even if I had a supply of Skittles on my desk, I’d never find them under all the papers.) The brilliant idea, undoubtedly fuelled by Skittles sugar, was that it would be much cooler if we joined forces and offer two identical seminars that would pair both beer and wine with various chocolate dishes. If that wasn’t enough, we also decided that it would be way more fun to present chocolate-based foods rather than straight chocolate.

cocloco1During the weeks leading up to the event, Brewmaster students created six beers to pair with the food. Working with the culinary department, we developed a menu of chocolate-based foods that were perhaps outside the usual range of what you might think as chocolate. And that was the gist of our seminars as well — we knew everyone was going to go home from the festival bursting with chocolate-y ideas of what to serve to guests next weekend, but inevitably it was going to be either chocolate fondue or chocolate cake. We titled our seminars “Going Coco Loco”, and as the name suggests, we wanted people to think outside the box when it came to both chocolate and the wines and beers to serve with them.

Ancho Chili Soup with Cocoa

Ancho Chili Soup with Cocoa

Our first course was Chili Ancho Sopa de Chocolate — a smooth spicy Mexican soup made with blackened ancho chili peppers and enriched with semisweet chocolate. I think a lot of people in the seminar were expecting Britnie to present an icewine — it’s the usual suspect when eating chocolate-based foods; but Britnie instead pulled out a 2012 College Rosé. The sweetness of the Rosé’s residual sugar helped disperse the heat of the spices, and its light body contrasted well with the thick soup. On the beer side, in the first seminar I chose to pair the spicy soup with a Vanilla Cream Ale that had been devised by Teaching Brewery Brewmaster Jon Downing and made by a group of 1st-year Brewmaster students. Like the wine, this beer was on the sweet side, which tamped down the heat of the soup, and the vanilla flavour went well with the cocoa notes like vanilla and chocolate ice cream in the same bowl. In the second seminar, I used the same reasoning but with a bit more oomph, pairing the soup with a Russian Imperial Stout devised and created by 2nd-year student Graham McMullen.

Pulled chicken sliders with Mole Negro

Pulled chicken sliders with Mole Negro

The second course was Pulled Chicken Sliders with Mole Negro — spiced with three types of chili peppers, some garlic, a bit of canela, some almonds and sesame seeds, and of course , some chocolate. For the wine, Britnie picked a 2010 Dean’s List Meritage, a Bordeaux-style with enough body to match the blackened spices. For the first seminar, I chose Chocolate Cherry Schwartzbier, again one of Jon Downing’s recipes that was created by 1st-year students. This sweet beer is normally paired with black forest cake, but I wanted to try it against the black mole sauce, and I think it worked well. For the second seminar, I paired the chicken sliders with 2nd-year student Mark Lewis’s modern take on an ancient Aztec beer recipe, something he calls “Xocolotl”. This big (10%) beer has both sweetness and some fairly significant spicy heat, so matched both the blackened spices and the cocoa in the sliders.

Cocoa-Rubbed Baby Back Ribs

Cocoa-Rubbed Baby Back Ribs

The third course was Cocoa-Rubbed Baby Back Ribs — just what it sounds like: ribs rubbed with a combination of cocoa powder, brown sugar, ancho chili powder, and some spices. Mmmmm! Britnie’s wine was a 2010 Cabernet Sauvignon with lots of tannins for the meaty ribs. My choice of beer at both seminars was 2nd-year student Tanner Hinrichsen’s “Spicy Orange Ale”. Tanner confessed that he is not really a fan of chocolate, so he set out to make a beer that would pair well with chocolate without using chocolate or dark malts. The result is a light amber ale with strong citrussy orange notes and a bit of heat. This and the ribs made for a great combination.

Baba Ghannouj with White Chocolate

Baba Ghannouj with White Chocolate

Our final course was White Chocolate Baba Ghannouj with Spent Grain Crisps — a fairly standard baba ghannouj with the rather unusual addition of some white chocolate. Britnie chose the 2011 Niagara College Semi-Dry Riesling, which had enough acidity to cut through the thick body of the baba ghannouj. I chose another of Jon Downing’s recipes, French Coffee Porter. Although this has very noticeable coffee flavours, those actually come from one of the grains used, French Coffee Press malt. I thought the coffee and white chocolate made a good combination.

Britnie & I going coco-loco.

Britnie & I going coco-loco.

Perhaps the best part of the seminars was that the college was fortunate enough to receive a generous sponsorship from nearby Inniskillin Wines that allowed us to offer the seminars for no cost. Yep, free food and drinks, woo-hoo! Everything tastes better when it’s free.

In the end, everyone went home with some ideas for a chocolate-based dinner that will hopefully colour outside the lines, and Britnie & I were left with the task of coming up with some more great recipe ideas for next year.

If you would like a copy of the recipes for the four dishes served at our seminars, contact me at studentofbeer@gmail.com

MBAC 100th Anniversary Conference: Part 3

February 24, 2014

Still at the 100th Anniversary Technical Conference of the MBAC. With fermentation and history finished, it was time to move on to filtration.

Beer Haze & Colloidal Stability (Karl Sibert, Professor of Biochemistry, Cornell University)

If you’ve left beer in your fridge a long time, you know that eventually the beer will start to get hazy. First the haze only appears when the beer is cold but then disappears when the beer warms up — the classic “chill haze”. Leave that beer for a while and the haze becomes permanent, regardless of temperature. There is no way to prevent this increasing haziness other than by reducing the amount of haze-causing (or “haze-active”) particles in the beer before you bottle it.

As Professor Sibert explained — this was actually a reiteration of material we had covered in several classes of the Brewmaster program — hazes are caused by protein-polyphenol complexes that start as tiny particles but gradually clump together into larger and larger particles. Protein particles are hordein, which is found in barley (and for wheat beers, from a protein called gliadin.)

Dr. Siebert’s research shows that since haze-active proteins and haze-active polyphenols combine to create haze, it follows that reducing haze-active proteins by 50% should reduce haze by the same amount.

He also suggested that silica gel, a filtration aid now gaining favour with brewers, works by attaching itself to haze-active proteins, thus not allowing competing polyphenols to attach. If a significant number of the polyphenols are unable to bind with the haze-active proteins, beer haze will be reduced significantly.

Beer Filtration: The Current situation and Future Outlook (Ernst Meier, M & L Consulting)

We started with a look back at the past 70 years of beer filtration.

The 1940s saw the development of mass filtration or deep-bed filtration, where beer was passed through a very long box filled with cotton or sometimes even asbestos. In the 1960s, the excellent filtration properties of diatomaceous earth (the microscopic fossilized silica skeletons of a prehistoric hard-shelled algae, better known as kieselguhr in Germany) were discovered. The first DE filters were “plate and frame” style — cotton “plates” stretched on frames and covered with DE were clamped together and beer forced through the apparatus. In the 1980s and 1990s, DE filters using circular steel plates, either horizontal or vertical, were developed. These were soon followed by “candle” filters.

The interesting thing was not the development of this technology, but the relative cost of the filter: In the 1960s, 90% of your filtration cost was tied up in the filter itself. Today, the cost of the filter is only about 28% of your filtration cost — the other 72% is being spent on a complx web of tanks, pipes and peripherals, including in-line syrup dosing, flash pasteurization and in-line CIP (clean in place).

You would think it would be obvious, but many brewers run into problems by installing new filtration systems without regard to their existing systems. Apparently a recurring problem is installing new equipment in the old space, depsite the fact that it requires more space than the old system. What usually occurs is a lack of space for proper maintenance and access to the new systems.

As we heard earlier with regard to fermentation tank design, pre-planning a new filtration system is paramount.

Best line of the presentation: “Employees always make the same mistakes. Engineers always make new mistakes.”

Centrifuge Optimization and Maintenance (Marco Garcia, MillerCoors)

Large centrifuges are becoming popular with brewers as a means of quickly and efficiently removing yeast and other “large” particles from the beer before fine filtration. This reduces the load on the fine filters, and also speeds up filtration times. A modern centrifuge has a stack of metal cones inside it, with a clearance of a few microns between each cone. Yeasty beer fresh from the fermenter is forced in between the cones while they are being spun at 30,000 rpm. The yeast and other “heavy” particles are forced to the outside wall of the centrifuge and are drained away, while the now-clear beer is forced to the centre of the centrifuge, where it is drained to the next step of finer filtration or to a holding tank.

This can remove yeast from a very large volume of beer in a short time, but there some caveats. This is not a machine you want to run if you have the slightest doubt about maintenance issues. It is a big heavy machine with parts that are spinning incredibly fast — if anything were to happen, I would not want to be in the same building, let alone standing beside it.

At MillerCoors, they have discovered that measuring the discharge is essntial to optimizing performance. If the discharge starts to drop off, there could be a problem. They have also installed sensors that can detect if a shaft bearing is starting to fail. In addition, MillerCoors has instituted a schedule of cleaning and preventative maintenance that include semi-annual major overhauls, timed to avoid the busy summer brewing season. All of their American operations now use standardized maintenance practices, and maintenance personnel are trained to follow a Standard Operational Procedure (SOP).

Next up: Barrel Dwellers

MBAC 100th Anniversary Conference: Part 2

February 20, 2014

The first two parts of the conference had been about cellaring and fermentation. The next part of the conference was brewery history.

Sleeman Brewery (John Sleeman)

Sleeman started as a small brewery on the outskirts of Guelph, Ontario, but through clever marketing of clear glass bottles (bad for beer but nice to look at) it rapidly outpaced the other small breweries in the area and became a national player. The founder, John Sleeman, is a very personable guy, very able to sell himself — and that has probably been one of his strengths during the long and sometimes difficult road he has followed while building Sleeman to the size it is today.

He related some of the stories behind the advertising we see on TV — the references to “pirates” and “smugglers”, and how his father was forced to close the family brewery in Guelph when the Sleemans were caught providing beer to American smugglers during Prohibition. How John started a brewery armed with nothing more than his grandfather’s recipe book and the promise of technical expertise from Stroh’s, was a fascinating story.

He had several pieces of advice:

  • Be brutally honest about your own skills, and find people to fill in the gaps you have.
  • Don’t hire friends and family. First, it’s too hard to fire them when they mess up. Secondly, other employees will always believe that friends and family, no matter how skilled, get promoted due to nepotism.
  • Don’t underfund your start-up. More companies die due to lack of cash flow rather than bad product or poor sales.

Mill St. Brewery (Joel Manning)

Mill St. was a “3rd wave” craft brewery that started as a tiny operation in the touristy Distillery District of downtown Toronto  in 2002. Smart marketing to women of a rather bland low alcohol organic beer in a smaller-than-normal 200 mL “pony” bottle caused sensational sales and growth. (During an informal tour of their brewery last summer, one of the brewer showed me their fermenter schedule — “Organic Ale” still makes up over 60% of their production.)

Joel was brought on in 2005 to oversee construction of a brewhouse out in the dreary eastern suburbs of Toronto — an area called Scarborough on the map, but better know as “Scarberia” to locals.

Things were not easy for Joel — the industrial building for which Mill St. had signed a lease proved to have inadequate water, electricity and sewage capacity. However, problems got solved with the application of more money. (As the experts say, “Set a budget and schedule, then double the money and triple the time.”) Mill St. definitely did not build a showcase brewery — it is located in an anonymous industrial building in an anonymous industrial district. Mill St. has never publicized the new brewery location, and many people probably believe their beer is still brewed in the Distillery District.

Once the new brewery was in operation, the original brewery back in the Distillery District was converted into a brewpub.

 


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